Main: Muqbil bin Ḥādi al-Wādi’ī
Translation: Taher Noor

 

تحريم التقليد في الدين

Chapter 3 : The Prohibition of Taqleed (blind following) in the Religion

 

Allah the most high said:

أَمۡ ءَاتَيۡنَـٰهُمۡ ڪِتَـٰبً۬ا مِّن قَبۡلِهِۦ فَهُم بِهِۦ مُسۡتَمۡسِكُون بَلۡ قَالُوٓاْ إِنَّا وَجَدۡنَآ ءَابَآءَنَا عَلَىٰٓ أُمَّةٍ۬ وَإِنَّا عَلَىٰٓ ءَاثَـٰرِهِم مُّهۡتَدُون وَكَذَٲلِكَ مَآ أَرۡسَلۡنَا مِن قَبۡلِكَ فِى قَرۡيَةٍ۬ مِّن نَّذِيرٍ إِلَّا قَالَ مُتۡرَفُوهَآ إِنَّا وَجَدۡنَآ ءَابَآءَنَا عَلَىٰٓ أُمَّةٍ۬ وَإِنَّا عَلَىٰٓ ءَاثَـٰرِهِم مُّقۡتَدُونَ قَـٰلَ أَوَلَوۡ جِئۡتُكُم بِأَهۡدَىٰ مِمَّا وَجَدتُّمۡ عَلَيۡهِ ءَابَآءَكُمۡۖ قَالُوٓاْ إِنَّا بِمَآ أُرۡسِلۡتُم بِهِۦ كَـٰفِرُون فَٱنتَقَمۡنَا مِنۡہُمۡۖ فَٱنظُرۡ كَيۡفَ كَانَ عَـٰقِبَةُ ٱلۡمُكَذِّبِينَ

Or have We perhaps given them a book before this one, to which they hold fast? No indeed! They say, ‘We saw our fathers following this tradition; we are guided by their footsteps.’ When- ever We sent a messenger before you to warn a township, those corrupted by wealth said, in the same way, ‘We saw our fathers following this tradition; we are only following in their footsteps.’ The messenger said, ‘Even though I bring you a truer religion than what you saw your fathers following?’ and they replied, ‘But we do not believe the message you bring.’ We punished them: think about how those who rejected the Truth met their end. [Surah al-Zukhruf 43:21:25]

Allah said:

وَإِذَا قِيلَ لَهُمُ ٱتَّبِعُواْ مَآ أَنزَلَ ٱللَّهُ قَالُواْ بَلۡ نَتَّبِعُ مَآ أَلۡفَيۡنَا عَلَيۡهِ ءَابَآءَنَآۗ أَوَلَوۡ كَانَ ءَابَآؤُهُمۡ لَا يَعۡقِلُونَ شَيۡـًٔ۬ا وَلَا يَهۡتَدُونَ

But when it is said to them, ‘Follow the message that Allah has sent down,’ they answer, ‘We follow the ways of our fathers.’ Even though their fathers understood nothing and were not guided? [Surah al-Baqarah 2:170]

Allah said:

وَإِذَا قِيلَ لَهُمۡ تَعَالَوۡاْ إِلَىٰ مَآ أَنزَلَ ٱللَّهُ وَإِلَى ٱلرَّسُولِ قَالُواْ حَسۡبُنَا مَا وَجَدۡنَا عَلَيۡهِ ءَابَآءَنَآۚ أَوَلَوۡ كَانَ ءَابَآؤُهُمۡ لَا يَعۡلَمُونَ شَيۡـًٔ۬ا وَلَا يَہۡتَدُونَ

when it is said to them, ‘Come to what Allah has sent down, and to the Messenger,’ they say, ‘What we inherited from our forefathers is good enough for us,’ even though their forefathers knew nothing and were not guided. [Surah al-Māidah 5:104]

Allah said:

 ٱتَّخَذُوٓاْ أَحۡبَارَهُمۡ وَرُهۡبَـٰنَهُمۡ أَرۡبَابً۬ا مِّن دُونِ ٱللَّهِ

They take their rabbis and their monks as lords besides Allah. [Surah al-Tawbah 9:31]

He said:

وَلَا تَقۡفُ مَا لَيۡسَ لَكَ بِهِۦ عِلۡمٌۚ

Do not follow blindly what you do not know to be true. [Surah al-Isra 17:36]

Allah said:

وَيَوۡمَ يَعَضُّ ٱلظَّالِمُ عَلَىٰ يَدَيۡهِ يَقُولُ يَـٰلَيۡتَنِى ٱتَّخَذۡتُ مَعَ ٱلرَّسُولِ سَبِيلاً۬ يَـٰوَيۡلَتَىٰ لَيۡتَنِى لَمۡ أَتَّخِذۡ فُلَانًا خَلِيلاً۬ لَّقَدۡ أَضَلَّنِى عَنِ ٱلذِّڪۡرِ بَعۡدَ إِذۡ جَآءَنِىۗ وَڪَانَ ٱلشَّيۡطَـٰنُ لِلۡإِنسَـٰنِ خَذُولاً۬

On that Day, the evildoer will bite his own hand and say, ‘If only I had taken the same path as the Messenger. Woe is me! If only I had not taken so and so as a friend– he led me away from the Revelation after it reached me. Shaytan has always betrayed mankind.’ [Surah al-Furqān 25:27-29]

Allah said:

يَوۡمَ تُقَلَّبُ وُجُوهُهُمۡ فِى ٱلنَّارِ يَقُولُونَ يَـٰلَيۡتَنَآ أَطَعۡنَا ٱللَّهَ وَأَطَعۡنَا ٱلرَّسُولَا۟ وَقَالُواْ رَبَّنَآ إِنَّآ أَطَعۡنَا سَادَتَنَا وَكُبَرَآءَنَا فَأَضَلُّونَا ٱلسَّبِيلَا۟ رَبَّنَآ ءَاتِہِمۡ ضِعۡفَيۡنِ مِنَ ٱلۡعَذَابِ وَٱلۡعَنۡہُمۡ لَعۡنً۬ا كَبِيرً۬ا

On the Day when their faces are being turned about in the Fire, they will say, ‘If only we had obeyed Allah and the Messenger,’ and ‘Lord! We obeyed our chiefs and the great ones amongst us, and they led us astray. Lord! Give them a double punishment and reject them completely.’ [Surah al-Ahzāb 33:66-68]

Allah said:

وَلَقَدۡ ءَاتَيۡنَآ إِبۡرَٲهِيمَ رُشۡدَهُ ۥ مِن قَبۡلُ وَكُنَّا بِهِۦ عَـٰلِمِينَ إِذۡ قَالَ لِأَبِيهِ وَقَوۡمِهِۦ مَا هَـٰذِهِ ٱلتَّمَاثِيلُ ٱلَّتِىٓ أَنتُمۡ لَهَا عَـٰكِفُونَ قَالُواْ وَجَدۡنَآ ءَابَآءَنَا لَهَا عَـٰبِدِينَ قَالَ لَقَدۡ كُنتُمۡ أَنتُمۡ وَءَابَآؤُڪُمۡ فِى ضَلَـٰلٍ۬ مُّبِينٍ۬

Long ago We bestowed right judgement on Abraham and We knew him well. He said to his father and his people, ‘What are these images to which you are so devoted?’  They replied, ‘We found our forefathers worshipping them.’ He said, ‘You and your fathers have clearly gone astray.’ [Surah al-Anbiya 21:51-54]

Allah said:

وَإِذَا فَعَلُواْ فَـٰحِشَةً۬ قَالُواْ وَجَدۡنَا عَلَيۡہَآ ءَابَآءَنَا وَٱللَّهُ أَمَرَنَا بِہَاۗ قُلۡ إِنَّ ٱللَّهَ لَا يَأۡمُرُ بِٱلۡفَحۡشَآءِۖ أَتَقُولُونَ عَلَى ٱللَّهِ مَا لَا تَعۡلَمُونَ

Yet when [these people] do something disgraceful, they say, ‘We found our forefathers doing this,’ and, ‘Allah has commanded us to do this.’ Say [Prophet], ‘Allah does not command disgraceful deeds. How can you say about Allah things that you do not know [to be true]?’ [Surah al-‘Arāf 7:28]

And Allah said in Surah al-‘Arāf regarding the people of Hūd:

قَالُوٓاْ أَجِئۡتَنَا لِنَعۡبُدَ ٱللَّهَ وَحۡدَهُ ۥ وَنَذَرَ مَا ڪَانَ يَعۡبُدُ ءَابَآؤُنَاۖ فَأۡتِنَا بِمَا تَعِدُنَآ إِن كُنتَ مِنَ ٱلصَّـٰدِقِينَ

They said, ‘Have you really come to tell us to serve Allah alone and to forsake what our forefathers served? If what you say is true, bring us the punishment you threaten.’ [Surah al-‘Arāf 7:70]

In Surah Hūd, Allah said regarding the nation of Sālih:

قَالُواْ يَـٰصَـٰلِحُ قَدۡ كُنتَ فِينَا مَرۡجُوًّ۬ا قَبۡلَ هَـٰذَآۖ أَتَنۡهَٮٰنَآ أَن نَّعۡبُدَ مَا يَعۡبُدُ ءَابَآؤُنَا وَإِنَّنَا لَفِى شَكٍّ۬ مِّمَّا تَدۡعُونَآ إِلَيۡهِ مُرِيبٍ۬

They said, ‘Salih, We used to have such great hope in you. Will you forbid us to worship what our fathers worshipped? We are in grave doubt about what you are asking us to do.’ [Surah Hūd 11:62]

And Allah said, informing of the people of Sho’aib:

قَالُواْ يَـٰشُعَيۡبُ أَصَلَوٰتُكَ تَأۡمُرُكَ أَن نَّتۡرُكَ مَا يَعۡبُدُ ءَابَآؤُنَآ أَوۡ أَن نَّفۡعَلَ فِىٓ أَمۡوَٲلِنَا مَا نَشَـٰٓؤُاْۖ إِنَّكَ لَأَنتَ ٱلۡحَلِيمُ ٱلرَّشِيدُ

They said, ‘Shuayb, does your prayer tell you that we should abandon what our forefathers worshipped and refrain from doing whatever we please with our own property? Indeed you are a tolerant and sensible man. [Surah Hūd 11:87]

In Surah Mu’minun, Allah said regarding the people of Nuh:

فَقَالَ ٱلۡمَلَؤُاْ ٱلَّذِينَ كَفَرُواْ مِن قَوۡمِهِۦ مَا هَـٰذَآ إِلَّا بَشَرٌ۬ مِّثۡلُكُمۡ يُرِيدُ أَن يَتَفَضَّلَ عَلَيۡڪُمۡ وَلَوۡ شَآءَ ٱللَّهُ لَأَنزَلَ مَلَـٰٓٮِٕكَةً۬ مَّا سَمِعۡنَا بِہَـٰذَا فِىٓ ءَابَآٮِٕنَا ٱلۡأَوَّلِينَ

But the leading disbelievers among his people said, ‘He is merely a mortal like you, trying to gain some superiority over you. Allah would have sent down angels if He had wished; besides, we never heard of anything like this from our forefathers. [Surah al-Mu’minun 23:24]

If a person was to say, ‘these ayat about criticising Taqleed are about disbelief (kufr)’, the response would be that the condemnation of Taqleed is derived from them. Taqleed is to follow someone who is not an authority (Hujjah) without proof (Hujjah). Taqleed has been made as a barrier between many Muslims and the book their Lord and the Sunnah of their Prophet. Many of them don’t understand anything besides the saying of so and so, being a partisan to him rather than being on the side of the book and the Sunnah. Even to the extent Muhammad ibn Ibrāhīm al-Bashūji, who is from the narrators in Tahdhib said:

ومن شعب الإيمان حب ابن شافع … وفرض أكيد حبه لا تطوع

أنا شافعي ما حييت وإن أمت … فوصيتي للناس أن يتشفعوا

From the branches of faith is to love the son of Shafi’ee,

it is an obligation to love him and not a choice.

I am a Shafi’ee so long as I live and so long as I die,

and I direct people to be Shafi’ees.

I say: Why does he not direct them to stick to the book and the Sunnah!

And after him, Muhammad ibn Ismā’īl al-Harowi said:

أنا حنبلي ما حييت وإن أمت … فوصيتي للناس أن يتحنبلوا

I am a Hanbali so long I live and even if I die

As such I command the people to be Hanbalis

And some of the ignorant Malikis said:

لولا مالك كان الدين هالك

“The religion would have been destroyed had it not been for Mālik.”

There is none worthy of worship besides Allah! How much fitnah, disorder, riots, strife have come about due to Madhabs. If you wish, read ‘al-Bidayah wa’l Nihayah’ by Ibn Kathir and you will find astonishing things such as conflict and killing between the Madhabs followers. All this due to Taqleed, which only ends with many of the Muslims blind-following the enemies of Islam. To Allah we belong, to Allah we will return. Sufficient for us is Allah and he is the best of protectors.

And if you ask, ‘what should the lay-person who does not understand the book or the Sunnah?’, the response is, he is precisely contained within the saying of Allah:

فَسۡـَٔلُوٓاْ أَهۡلَ ٱلذِّكۡرِ إِن كُنتُمۡ لَا تَعۡلَمُونَ

Ask those who have knowledge if you do not know. [Surah al-Nahl 16:43]

And he is also within the saying of Allah:

ٱتَّبِعُواْ مَآ أُنزِلَ إِلَيۡكُم مِّن رَّبِّكُمۡ وَلَا تَتَّبِعُواْ مِن دُونِهِۦۤ أَوۡلِيَآءَۗ قَلِيلاً۬ مَّا تَذَكَّرُونَ

Follow what has been sent down to you from your Lord; do not follow other masters beside Him. How seldom you take heed!’ [Surah al-‘Arāf 7:3]

The most informative way to teach a lay-person is by action. And teaching by way of action has a genuine basis. The Prophet prayed with his companions while he was on the minbar and when he wanted to perform Sajdah, he would come down and perform Sajdah on the ground.

O Allah, we absolve ourselves from Taqleed, Taqleed which has broken the union of the Muslims and has divided many of them between themselves and the book of their lord and the Sunnah of their prophet. And Taqleed has made it easy for them to follow the enemies of Islam.

I advise one to read: ‘al-Qawl al-Mufid fi Adallati’l Ijtihad wa’l Taqleed (القول المفيد في أدلة الاجتهاد والتقليد)’ by Shawkani and ‘Irshād al-Nuqād ila Taysir al-Ijtihād (إرشاد النقاد إلى تيسير الاجتهاد)’ by al-San’āni.

And if you were to ask, what is more damaging to the religion, Madhabs or Hizbiyyah, then the answer is Hizbiyyah since it was imported by the enemies of Islam in order to destroy it as I have clarified in my books:

1. Ijābatu’s Sā’il ‘an aham’l masā’il جابة السائل عن أهم المسائل

2. Al-Fawākihah al-Jenniya الفواكه الجنية

3. Al-Musara’ah المصارعة

4. Al-Qawl al-amīn fi bayān fadhaih al-Mudhabdhabīn القول الأمين في بيان فضائح المذبذبين

5. Qam’ul Ma’ānid قمع المعاند

6. Gharatu’l Ashratah ‘Ala ahl’l Jahl wa’s Safsatah غارة الأشرطة على أهل الجهل والسفسطة

and it was mentioned too in Fadaih wa Nasaih فضائح ونصائح.

As for us, when we warn from the Taqleed of Abu Hanifa, we do not call others to follow our Madhab, since we don’t have a Madhab besides the book of our Lord and the Sunnah of our Prophet. We do not even call the people to follow us since we are not the people to be followed. Rather we call the people to the book of Allah and the Sunnah of the Messenger.

These two, the book of Allah and the Sunnah of the Messenger, are the sanctuaries from misguidance:

إِنَّ هَـٰذَا ٱلۡقُرۡءَانَ يَہۡدِى لِلَّتِى هِىَ أَقۡوَمُ وَيُبَشِّرُ ٱلۡمُؤۡمِنِينَ ٱلَّذِينَ يَعۡمَلُونَ ٱلصَّـٰلِحَـٰتِ أَنَّ لَهُمۡ أَجۡرً۬ا كَبِيرً۬ا

This Quran does indeed show the straightest way. It gives the faithful who do right the good news that they will have a great reward. [Surah al-Isra 17:9]

حَدَّثَنَا عَيَّاشٌ، حَدَّثَنَا عَبْدُ الأَعْلَى، حَدَّثَنَا سَعِيدٌ، قَالَ وَقَالَ لِي خَلِيفَةُ حَدَّثَنَا ابْنُ زُرَيْعٍ، حَدَّثَنَا سَعِيدٌ، عَنْ قَتَادَةَ، عَنْ أَنَسٍ ـ رضى الله عنه ـ عَنِ النَّبِيِّ صلى الله عليه وسلم قَالَ ‏ “‏ الْعَبْدُ إِذَا وُضِعَ فِي قَبْرِهِ، وَتُوُلِّيَ وَذَهَبَ أَصْحَابُهُ حَتَّى إِنَّهُ لَيَسْمَعُ قَرْعَ نِعَالِهِمْ، أَتَاهُ مَلَكَانِ فَأَقْعَدَاهُ فَيَقُولاَنِ لَهُ مَا كُنْتَ تَقُولُ فِي هَذَا الرَّجُلِ مُحَمَّدٍ صلى الله عليه وسلم فَيَقُولُ أَشْهَدُ أَنَّهُ عَبْدُ اللَّهِ وَرَسُولُهُ‏.‏ فَيُقَالُ انْظُرْ إِلَى مَقْعَدِكَ مِنَ النَّارِ، أَبْدَلَكَ اللَّهُ بِهِ مَقْعَدًا مِنَ الْجَنَّةِ ـ قَالَ النَّبِيُّ صلى الله عليه وسلم فَيَرَاهُمَا جَمِيعًا ـ وَأَمَّا الْكَافِرُ ـ أَوِ الْمُنَافِقُ ـ فَيَقُولُ لاَ أَدْرِي، كُنْتُ أَقُولُ مَا يَقُولُ النَّاسُ‏.‏ فَيُقَالُ لاَ دَرَيْتَ وَلاَ تَلَيْتَ‏.‏ ثُمَّ يُضْرَبُ بِمِطْرَقَةٍ مِنْ حَدِيدٍ ضَرْبَةً بَيْنَ أُذُنَيْهِ، فَيَصِيحُ صَيْحَةً يَسْمَعُهَا مَنْ يَلِيهِ إِلاَّ الثَّقَلَيْنِ ‏”‏‏.‏

Bukhari narrated from Anas that the Prophet said, “When a human being is laid in his grave and his companions return and he even hears their footsteps, two angels come to him and make him sit and ask him: What did you use to say about this man, Muhammad? He will say: I testify that he is Allah’s slave and His Apostle. Then it will be said to him, ‘Look at your place in the Hell-Fire. Allah has given you a place in Paradise instead of it.’ ” The Prophet added, “The dead person will see both his places. But a non-believer or a hypocrite will say to the angels, ‘I do not know, but I used to say what the people used to say! It will be said to him, ‘Neither did you know nor did you take the guidance (by reciting the Qur’an).’ Then he will be hit with an iron hammer between his two ears, and he will cry and that cry will be heard by whatever approaches him except human beings and jinns.” [Bukhari #1338, #1374, Muslim #2870]

Bukhari narrated this again, p. 232, #1374, and by Muslim vol. 4, p. 2200, #2870.

حَدَّثَنَا مَحْمُودٌ، حَدَّثَنَا عَبْدُ الرَّزَّاقِ، أَخْبَرَنَا مَعْمَرٌ، عَنِ الزُّهْرِيِّ، عَنِ ابْنِ الْمُسَيَّبِ، عَنْ أَبِيهِ، أَنَّ أَبَا طَالِبٍ، لَمَّا حَضَرَتْهُ الْوَفَاةُ دَخَلَ عَلَيْهِ النَّبِيُّ صلى الله عليه وسلم وَعِنْدَهُ أَبُو جَهْلٍ فَقَالَ ‏”‏ أَىْ عَمِّ، قُلْ لاَ إِلَهَ إِلاَّ اللَّهُ‏.‏ كَلِمَةً أُحَاجُّ لَكَ بِهَا عِنْدَ اللَّهِ ‏”‏‏.‏ فَقَالَ أَبُو جَهْلٍ وَعَبْدُ اللَّهِ بْنُ أَبِي أُمَيَّةَ يَا أَبَا طَالِبٍ، تَرْغَبُ عَنْ مِلَّةِ عَبْدِ الْمُطَّلِبِ فَلَمْ يَزَالاَ يُكَلِّمَانِهِ حَتَّى قَالَ آخِرَ شَىْءٍ كَلَّمَهُمْ بِهِ عَلَى مِلَّةِ عَبْدِ الْمُطَّلِبِ‏.‏ فَقَالَ النَّبِيُّ صلى الله عليه وسلم ‏”‏ لأَسْتَغْفِرَنَّ لَكَ مَا لَمْ أُنْهَ عَنْهُ ‏”‏‏.‏ فَنَزَلَتْ ‏{‏مَا كَانَ لِلنَّبِيِّ وَالَّذِينَ آمَنُوا أَنْ يَسْتَغْفِرُوا لِلْمُشْرِكِينَ وَلَوْ كَانُوا أُولِي قُرْبَى مِنْ بَعْدِ مَا تَبَيَّنَ لَهُمْ أَنَّهُمْ أَصْحَابُ الْجَحِيمِ‏}‏ وَنَزَلَتْ ‏{‏إِنَّكَ لاَ تَهْدِي مَنْ أَحْبَبْتَ‏}‏

Bukhari narrated from Al-Musaiyab that when Abu Talib was in his death bed, the Prophet went to him while Abu Jahl was sitting beside him. The Prophet said, “O my uncle! Say: None has the right to be worshipped except Allah, an expression I will defend your case with, before Allah.” Abu Jahl and `Abdullah bin Umaiya said, “O Abu Talib! Will you leave the religion of `Abdul Muttalib?” So they kept on saying this to him so that the last statement he said to them (before he died) was: “I am on the religion of `Abdul Muttalib.” Then the Prophet said, ” I will keep on asking for Allah’s Forgiveness for you unless I am forbidden to do so.” Then the following Verse was revealed:

مَا كَانَ لِلنَّبِيِّ وَالَّذِينَ آمَنُوا أَنْ يَسْتَغْفِرُوا لِلْمُشْرِكِينَ وَلَوْ كَانُوا أُولِي قُرْبَى مِنْ بَعْدِ مَا تَبَيَّنَ لَهُمْ أَنَّهُمْ أَصْحَابُ الْجَحِيمِ

“It is not fitting for the Prophet and the believers to ask Allah’s Forgiveness for the pagans, even if they were their near relatives, after it has become clear to them that they are the dwellers of the (Hell) Fire.” (9.113)

The other Verse was also revealed:

إِنَّكَ لَا تَہۡدِى مَنۡ أَحۡبَبۡتَ وَلَـٰكِنَّ ٱللَّهَ يَہۡدِى مَن يَشَآءُۚ

“(O Prophet!) Verily, you guide not whom you love, but Allah guides whom He wills” (28.56) [Bukhari #3884, Muslim #24]

It was also narrated in Muslim vol.1, p. 214.

Al-Wādi’ī, Muqbil bin Hādī., نشر الصحيفة في ذكر الصحيح من أقوال أئمة الجرح والتعديل في أبي حنيفة, Cairo, Arab Republic of Egypt, Dār al-Haramayn, pp. 14-18.

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