Main: Muqbil bin Ḥādi al-Wādi’ī
Translation: Taher Noor

 

ما جاء في ذم الرأي

The Condemnation of Ra’i (opinions)

حدثنا محمد بن العلاء قال حدثنا حفصيعني ابن غياثعن الأعمش عن أبي إسحاق عن عبد خير عن علي قال: لو كان الذين بالرأي لكان أسفل الخف أولى بالمسح من أعلاه وقد رأيت رسول الله صلى الله عليه وعلى آله وسلم يمسح على ظاهر خفيه.

Abu Dāwūd narrated from ‘Alī that he said, “If the religion were based on opinion, it would be more important to wipe underneath the leather socks rather than the upper, but I saw Allah’s Messenger wiping over the upper parts of his leather socks. [Abu Dawud vol. 1, p. 278, #162]

حدثنا محمد بن رافع قال حدثني يحيى بن آدم قال أخبرنا يزيد بن عبد العزيز عن الأعمش بإسناده بهذا الحديث قال: ما كنت أرى باطن القدمين إلا أحق بالغسل حتى رأيت رسول الله صلى الله عليه وعلى آله وسلم يمسح على ظهير خفيه.

ورواه وكيع عن الأعمش قال: كنت أرى أن باطن القدمين أحق بالمسح من ظاهره حتى رأيت رسول الله صلى الله عليه وعلى آله وسلم يمسح على ظاهرهما. قال وكيع: ينعني الخفين.

ورواه عيسى بن يونس عن الأعمش كما رواه وكيع.

This narration was also narrated by Al-‘Amash with his chain to ‘Ali who said, “I used to see that washing underneath the feet was more rightly so until I saw the Messenger of Allah wiping above them.”

Wakee’ narrated from Al-‘Amash with his chain from Ali who said, “I used to see that wiping the bottom of the feet were more deserving than wiping on the top until I saw the Messenger of Allah wiping on top of them (i.e on top of the leather socks).”  [Abu Dawud vol. 1, p. 278, #164]

This hadith is authentic, the narrators are all found in Bukhari and Muslim aside from ‘Abd Khayr who has been authenticated by Ibn Ma’een in Tahdheeb al-tahdheeb.

 

الإثم على من سنَّ الرأي والبدع

The sin upon one who begins the practice of Ra’i and Bid’ah (innovation)

حدثنا عبد الوارث بن عبد الصمد بن عبد الوارث حدثني أبي عن جدي عن أيوب عن محمد بن سيرين عن أبي هريرة قال: جاء رجل إلى النبي صلى الله علي وعلى آله وسلم فحث عليه، فقال رجل: عندي كذا وكذا، قال: فما بقي في المجلس رجل إلا تصدق عليه بما قل أو كثر فقال رسول الله صلى الله عليه وعلى آله وسلم: من استنّ خيراً فاستُّن به كان له أجره كاملاً ومن أجور من استن به ولا ينقص من أجورهم شيئاً ومن استن سنة سيئة فاستُّن به فعليه وزره كاملاً ومن أوزار الذي استن به ولا ينقص من أوزارهم شيئاً

Ibn Majah narrated from Abu Hurayrah that “A man came to the Prophet, who encouraged the people to give charity to him. A man said: ‘I have such and such,’ and there was no one left in that gathering who did not give him something in charity, to a greater or lesser extent. The Messenger of Allah said: ‘Whoever initiates a good practice that is followed, he will receive a perfect reward for that, and a reward equivalent to that of those who follow it, without that detracting from their reward in the slightest. And whoever introduces a bad practice that is followed, he will receive the complete burden of sin for that, and a burden of sin equivalent to that of those who follow it without that detracting from their burden in the slightest.'” [Ibn Majah vol. 2, p. 74, #204]

This Hadith is Hasan and is upon the conditions of Muslim.

This Hadith was narrated by Ahmad, vol. 2, p. 520, from the chain of ‘Abdus-Samad. And this chain narrated from Imam Ahmad is upon the conditions of Bukhari and Muslim.

Imam Al-Bukhari said (vol. 10, p. 216):

 

باب الكهانة

Chapter of soothsaying

حدثنا سعيد بن عفير حدثنا الليث قال حدثني عبد الرحمن بن خالد عن ابن شهاب عن أبي سلمة (بن عبد الرحمن) عن أبي هريرة أن رسول الله صلى الله عليه وعلى آله وسلم قضى في امرأتين من هذيل اقتتلتا فرمت إحداهما الأخرى بحجر فأصاب بطنها، فاختصموا إلى النبي صلى الله عليه وعلى آله وسلم فقضى أن الدية ما في بطنها غرة عبد أو أمة فقال ولي المرأة التي غرمت: كيف أغرم يا رسول الله من لا شرب ولا أكل ولا نطق ولا استهل فمثل ذلك يطل؟ فقال: إنما هذا من إخوان الكهان.

والحديث أخرجه مسلم مع الشرح (ج11ص771) وفيه زيادة بعد قوله:

إنما هذا من إخوان الكهان، من أجل سجعه الذي سجع.

Narrated by Abu Huraira that Allah’s Messenger gave his verdict about two ladies of the Hudhail tribe who had fought each other and one of them had hit the other with a stone. The stone hit her `Abdomen and as she was pregnant, the blow killed the child in her womb. They both filed their case with the Prophet and he judged that the blood money for what was in her womb. was a slave or a female slave. The guardian of the lady who was fined said, “O Allah’s Messenger ! Shall I be fined for a creature that has neither drunk nor eaten, neither spoke nor cried? A case like that should be nullified.” On that the Prophet said, “This is one of the brothers of soothsayers on account of the rhymed speech which he has composed. [Bukhari vol. 10, p. 216, #5758]

Imam Al-Bukhari said (vol. 13, p.292)

 

باب تعليم النبي صلى الله عليه وعلى آله وسلم أمته من الرجال والنساء مما علمه الله ليس برأي ولا تمثيل

Chapter: The teachings of the Prophet to the Men and Women of his Ummah are from what Allah had taught him and not due to Ra’i or comparisons

حدثنا مسدد حدثنا أبو عوانة عن عبد الرحمن بن الأصبهاني عن أبي صالح ذكوان عن أبي سعيد جاءت امرأة إلى رسول الله صلى الله عليه وعلى آله وسلم فقالت: يا رسول الله ذهب الرجال بحديثك فاجعل لنا من نفسك يوماً نأتيك فيه تعلمنا مما علمك الله فقال: اجتمعن في يوم كذا وكذا في مكان كذا وكذا فاجتمعن فأتاهن رسول الله صلى الله عليه وعلى آله وسلم فعلمهن مما علمه الله، ثم قال: ما منكن من امرأة تقدم بين يديها من ولدها ثلاثة إلا كان لها حجاباً من النار قالت امرأة منهن: يا رسول الله واثنين فأعادتها مرتين ثم قال: واثنين واثنين واثنين

Narrated Abu Sa`id:

A woman came to Allah’s Messenger () and said, “O Allah’s Messenger ()! Men (only) benefit by your teachings, so please devote to us from (some of) your time, a day on which we may come to you so that you may teach us of what Allah has taught you.” Allah’s Messenger () said, “Gather on such-and-such a day at such and such a place.” They gathered and Allah’s Messenger () came to them and taught them of what Allah had taught him. He then said, “No woman among you who has lost her three children (died) but that they will screen her from the Fire.” A woman among them said, “O Allah’s Messenger ()! If she lost two children?” She repeated her question twice, whereupon the Prophet () said, “Even two, even two, even two!”. [Bukhari vol. 13, p. 292, #7310]

حدثنا محمد بن رافع حدثنا يحيى بن آدم حدثنا مفضل عن منصور عن إبراهيم عن عبيد بن نضلة عن المغيرة بن شعبة أن امرأة قتلت ضرتها بعمود فسطاط فأُتي فيه رسول الله صلى الله عليه وعلى آله وسلم فقضى على قاتلتها بالدية وكانت حاملاً فقضى في الجنين بغرة فقال بعض عصبتها: أندي من لا طَعِمَ ولا شرب ولا صاح فاستهل ومثل ذلك يطل؟! قال: فقال: سجع كسجع الأعراب.

Al-Mughira b. Shu’ba reported that a woman killed her fellow-wife with a tent-pole. Her case was brought to Allah’s Messenger (), and he gave judgment that blood-wit should be paid by the relatives (of the offender) on the father’s side. And as she was pregnant, he decided regarding her unborn child that a male or a female slave of good quality be given. Some of her offender’s) relatives said: Should we make compensation for one who never ate, nor drank, nor made any noise, who was like a nonentity? Thereupon Allah’s Messenger () said: He was talking rhymed phrases like the rhymed phrases of desert Arabs. [Muslim vol. 11, p. 179 #1682 and Nasai vol. 8, p. 44, #4821]

So you can see that the Messenger criticised him due to his opposition to the hadith due to his own ra’i and said, “This is one of the brothers of the soothsayers due to his words.”

حدثنا بسرة بن صفوان بن جميل اللخمي حدثنا نافع بن عمر عن ابن أبي مليكة قال: كاد الخيّران أن يهلكا، أبو بكر وعمر رضي الله عنهما رفعا أصواتهما عند النبي صلى الله عليه وعلى آله وسلم حين قدم عليه ركب بني تميم فأشار أحدهما بالأقرع بن حابس أخي بني مجاشع وأشار الآخر برجل آخر، قال نافع: لا أحفظ اسمه، فقال أبو بكر لعمر: ما أردت إلا خلافي قال: ما أردت خلافك، فارتفعت أصواتهما في ذلك فأنزل الله {يَا أَيُّهَا الَّذِينَ آمَنُوا لَا تَرْفَعُوا أَصْوَاتَكُمْ فَوْقَ صَوْتِ النَّبِيِّ وَلَا تَجْهَرُوا لَهُ بِالْقَوْلِ كَجَهْرِ بَعْضِكُمْ لِبَعْضٍ أَن تَحْبَطَ أَعْمَالُكُمْ وَأَنتُمْ لَا تَشْعُرُونَ} [سورة الحجرات: 2] قال ابن الزبير: فما كان عمر يسمع رسول الله صلى الله عليه وعلى آله وسلم حتى يستفهمه، ولم يذكر ذلك عن أبيهيعنيأبابكر

Narrated Ibn Abi Mulaika that the two righteous persons were about to be ruined. They were Abu Bakr and `Umar who raised their voices in the presence of the Prophet () when a mission from Bani Tamim came to him. One of the two recommended Al-Aqra’ bin Habeas, the brother of Bani Mujashi (to be their governor) while the other recommended somebody else. (Nafi`, the sub-narrator said, I do not remember his name). Abu Bakr said to `Umar, “You wanted nothing but to oppose me!” `Umar said, “I did not intend to oppose you.” Their voices grew loud in that argument, so Allah revealed: ‘O you who believe! Raise not your voices above the voice of the Prophet.’ (49.2) Ibn Az-Zubair said, “Since the revelation of this Verse, `Umar used to speak in such a low tone that the Prophet () had to ask him to repeat his statements.” But Ibn Az-Zubair did not mention the same about his (maternal) grandfather (i.e. Abu Bakr). [Bukhari vol. 8, p. 590, #368]

This was narrated by Bukhari, vol. 8, p 592, #370, which mentions the narration of Ibn Abi Mulaikah from ‘Abdullah bin Zubair also in vol. 17, p. 39. It was narrated by Tirmidhi, vol. 4, p 175, which mentions that Ibn Abi Mulaikah had the hadith narrated to him directly by Ibn al-Zubair. Also narrated by Ahmad, vol. 4, p.6 and Tabarani, vol. 36, p.119 which has the statement of Nafi’, narrated to me by Ibn Abi Mulaikah from Ibn Al-Zubair. So know, the chain is connected as was mentioned by Hāfidh Ibn Hajr in Fathul Bari, vol. 10, p. 313.

حدثنا إسماعيل حدثني مالك عن هشام بن عروة عن أبيه عن عائشة أم المؤمنين أن رسول الله صلى الله عليه وعلى آله وسلم قال في مرضه: مروا أبا بكر يصلي بالناس قالت عائشة: قلت: إن أبا بكر إذا قام في مقامك لم يسمع الناس من البكاء، فمر عمر فليصلِّ، فقال: مروا أبا بكر فليصلِّ بالناس، فقالت عائشة: فقلت لحفصة: قولي إن أبا بكر إذا قام في مقامك لم يسمع الناس من البكاء فمر عمر فليصلِّ بالناس، ففعلت حفصة فقال رسول الله صلى الله عليه وعلى آله وسلم: إنكن لأنتن صواحب يوسف مروا أبا بكر فليصلِّ بالناس، قالت حفصة لعائشة: ما كنت لأصيب منك خيراً.

Narrated `Aisha, the mother of believers that Allah’s Messenger () during his fatal ailment said, “Order Abu Bakr to lead the people in prayer.” I said, “If Abu Bakr stood at your place (in prayers, the people will not be able to hear him because of his weeping, so order `Umar to lead the people in prayer.” He again said, “Order Abu Bakr to lead the people in prayer ” Then I said to Hafsa, “Will you say (to the Prophet), ‘If Abu Bakr stood at your place, the people will not be able to hear him because of his weeping, so order `Umar to lead the people in prayer?” Hafsa did so, whereupon Allah’s Messenger () said, “You are like the companions of Joseph (See Qur’an, 12:30-32). Order Abu Bakr to lead the people in prayer.” Hafsa then said to me, “I have never received any good from you!” [Bukhari vol. 13, p. 276, #7303, Muslim Vol. 5, pp. 140-141, #420]

حدثنا سعيد بن تليد حدثني ابن وهب حدثني عبد الرحمن بن شريح وغيره عن أبي الأسود عن عروة قال: حج علينا عبد الله بن عمرو فسمعته يقول: سمعت النبي صلى الله عليه وعلى آله وسلم يقول: إن الله لا ينزع العلم بعد أن أعطاكموه انتزاعاً ولكن ينتزعه منهم مع قبض العلماء بعلمهم فيبقى ناس جهال يستفتون فيفتون برأيهم فيضلون ويضلون.

Narrated `Abdullah bin `Amr that he heard the Prophet () saying, “Allah will not deprive you of knowledge after he has given it to you, but it will be taken away through the death of the religious learned men with their knowledge. Then there will remain ignorant people who, when consulted, will give verdicts according to their opinions whereby they will mislead others and go astray.”

حدثنا الفريابي قال حدثنا العباس بن الوليد بن مزيد قال أخبرني أبي قال: سمعت الأوزاعي يقول: عليك بآثار من سلف وإن رفضك الناس، وإياك وآراء الرجال وإن زخرفوا لك القول.

Al-Ājurri narrated from Al-Awza’ī who said, “Upon you is to take the narrations of the pious predecessors even if the people reject you! And beware of the Ra’i of people even if they allure you with their words. [Al-Shari’ah, Al-ājurri, p. 58]

وقال رحمه الله: أخبرنا أبو زكرياء يحيى بن محمد الحنائي قال حدثنا محمد بن عبيد بن حساب قال حدثنا حماد بن زيد قال حدثنا محمد بن واسع قال: رأيت صفوان بن محرز وأشار بيده إلى ناحية من المسجد، وشببة قريب منه يتجادلون فرأيته ينفض ثوبه وقام وقال: إنما أنتم حرب.

May Allah have mercy on Al-Ajūrri, he narrated from Muhammad bin Wāsi’ that he said, “I saw Safwan bin Muhraz and he pointed with his hand to the direction of the mosque and some youths were beside him arguing, so I saw him lift up his thawb, stand up and say, ‘verily you all are fighting.’” [Al-Ājurri, p. 58]

أخبرنا صدقة بن الفضل ثنا يحيى بن سيعد عن الزبرقان قال: نهاني أبو وائل أن أجالس أصحاب أرأيت.

Al-Dārimi narrated from Sa’eed bin Al-Zubruqaan who said, “Abu Wa’il forbade me from sitting with the people (who ask) is this your Ra’i (opinion)?” [Al-Dārimi Vol. 1, p. 77]

Al-Zubruqaan who is ibn ‘Abdullah Al-Asadi was declared Thiqah by Yahya bin Ma’een was is mentioned in Jarh wa Ta’dil by Ibn Abi Hātim.

أخبرنا محمد بن يوسف قال حدثنا مالك هو ابن مغول قال: قال لي الشعبي:

ما حدثوك هؤلاء عن رسول الله صلى الله عليه وعلى آله وسلم فخذ به، وما قالوه برأيهم فألقه في الحش.

Al-Dārimi narrated from Mālik ibn Mughaffal who said, “Shu’bah said to me, ‘what they narrate to you from the Messenger of Allah, then take it, and whatever they say from their Ra’i then throw it into the forest.’” [Dārimi vol.1 p. 78]

أخبرنا العباس عن سفيان عن زيد بن حباب أخبرني رجاء بن أبي سلمة قال سمعت عبدة بن أبي لبابة يقول: رضيت من أهل زماني هؤلاء أن لا يسألوني ولا أسألهم إنما يقول: أحدهم: أرأيت أرأيت.

‘Abdah ibn abi Laylah said, “I am pleased that the people of my time don’t ask me anything and I don’t ask them anything since they say, ‘isn’t it your opinion? isn’t it your opinion?.’” [Dārimi vol.1 p. 78]

 

الإنكار على من خالف النصوص لرأيه

The criticism upon someone who opposes a proof due to his Ra’i

حدثنا موسى بن إسماعيل قال حدثنا همام قال حدثنا قتادة قال حدثتني معاذة أن امرأة قالت لعائشة: تجزيء إحدانا صلاتها إذا طهرت فقالت: أحرورية أنت كنا نحيض مع النبي صلى الله عليه وعلى آله وسلم فلا يأمرنا به أو قالت: فلا نفعله.

Narrated Mu`adha who said a woman asked `Aisha, “Should I offer the prayers that which I did not offer because of menses” `Aisha said, “Are you from the Huraura’ (a town in Iraq?) We were with the Prophet () and used to get our periods, but he never ordered us to offer them (the Prayers missed during menses).” Or she said, ‘we did not offer them.’ [Bukhari vol. 1, p. 421, #321]

حدثنا أبو الربيع الزاهراني حدثنا حماد عن أيوب عن أبي قلابة عن معاذة (ح) وحدثنا حماد عن يزيد الرشك عن معاذة أن أمرأة سألت عائشة فقالت: أتقضي إحدانا الصلاة في أيام محيضها؟ فقالت عائشة: أحرورية أنت؟ قد كانت إحدانا تحيض على عهد رسول الله صلى الله عليه وعلى آله وسلم ثم لا تؤمر بقضاء.

Mu’adha reported that a woman asked ‘A’isha: Should one amongst us complete prayers abandoned during the period of menses? ‘A’isha said: Are you a Haruriya? When any one of us during the time of the Messenger of Allah () was in her menses (and abandoned prayer) she was not required to complete them. [Muslim vol. 1, p. 265, #335]

 

الإستعاذة من علم لا ينفع

Seeking Allah’s refuge from knowledge that does not benefit

أخبرنا يزيد بن سنان قال حدثنا عبد الرحمن قال أنبأنا سفيان عن عبد الله ابن أبي الهذيل عن عبد الله بن عمرو أن النبي صلى الله عليه وعلى آله وسلم كان يتعوذ من أربع: من علم لا ينفع، ومن قلب لا يخشع، ودعاء لا يسمع، ونفس لا تشبع.

Al-Nasā’ī narrated from ‘Abdullah bin Amr that the Prophet used to seek refuge in Allah from four things: From knowledge that is of no benefit, from a heart that does not feel humble, from a supplication that is not heard, and a soul that is never satisfied. [Al-Nasā’ī vol. 8, p. 254, #5442]

This Hadith is Saheeh, its narrators are from the narrators of Bukhari and Muslim except for Yazeed bin Sinan. Ibn Abi Hatim said, “I wrote Hadith from him, he is Thiqah and truthful.” And he was declared Thiqah by Al-Nasā’ī.

 

عقوبة المفتي الزائغ

The punishment of a corrupt Mufti

حدثنا مسدد حدثنا عبد الواحد بن زياد حدثنا الأعمش عن زيد بن وهب عن عبد الرحمن بن حسنة قال: انطلقت أنا وعمرو بن العاص إلى النبي صلى الله عليه وعلى آله وسلم فخرج ومعه درقة ثم استتر بها ثم بال فقلنا: انظروا إليه يبول كما تبول المرأة، فسمع ذلك، فقال: ألم تعلموا ما لقي صاحب بني إسرائيل، كانوا إذا أصابهم البول قطعوا ما أصابه البول منهم فنهاهم فعذب في قبره.

AbdurRahman ibn Hasanah reported: I and Amr ibn al-‘As went to the Prophet (). He came out with a leather shield (in his hand). He covered himself with it and urinated. Then we said: Look at him. He is urinating as a woman does. The Prophet (), heard this and said: Do you not know what befell a person from amongst Banu Isra’il (the children of Israel)? When urine fell on them, they would cut off the place where the urine fell; but he (that person) forbade them (to do so) and was punished in his grave. [Abū Dāwūd, vol. 1, p. 42, #22]

This hadith is Saheeh upon the conditions of Bukhari and Muslim. In the chain is ‘Abdul-Wahid bin Ziyad, although there is some dispute regarding his narrations from Al-‘Amash, he is corroborated by Abu Muawiyah and Wakee’ in Ahmad, vol. 4, p. 196. And this hadith is one which Daraqutni made binding on Bukhari and Muslim to narrate. It was also narrated by Nasā’ī vol. 1, p. 26, #30 and Ibn Mājah vol. 1, p. 124 , #309.

* * *

Al-Wādi’ī, Muqbil bin Hādī., نشر الصحيفة في ذكر الصحيح من أقوال أئمة الجرح والتعديل في أبي حنيفة, Cairo, Arab Republic of Egypt, Dār al-Haramayn, p. 26-32