Main: Muqbil bin Ḥādi al-Wādi’ī
Translation: Taher Noor

نشر الصحيفة في ذكر الصحيح من أقوال أئمة الجرح والتعديل في أبي حنيفة

A Critical Study of Abu Hanifah in the Footsteps of the Scholars

Chapter 1: Ghuloo (Extremism) – and the position of the Sharia regarding it

Allah the most high says:

لَقَدۡ ڪَفَرَ ٱلَّذِينَ قَالُوٓاْ إِنَّ ٱللَّهَ هُوَ ٱلۡمَسِيحُ ٱبۡنُ مَرۡيَمَۖ وَقَالَ ٱلۡمَسِيحُ يَـٰبَنِىٓ إِسۡرَٲٓءِيلَ ٱعۡبُدُواْ ٱللَّهَ رَبِّى وَرَبَّڪُمۡۖ إِنَّهُ ۥ مَن يُشۡرِكۡ بِٱللَّهِ فَقَدۡ حَرَّمَ ٱللَّهُ عَلَيۡهِ ٱلۡجَنَّةَ وَمَأۡوَٮٰهُ ٱلنَّارُۖ وَمَا لِلظَّـٰلِمِينَ مِنۡ أَنصَارٍ۬ لَّقَدۡ ڪَفَرَ ٱلَّذِينَ قَالُوٓاْ إِنَّ ٱللَّهَ ثَالِثُ ثَلَـٰثَةٍ۬ۘ وَمَا مِنۡ إِلَـٰهٍ إِلَّآ إِلَـٰهٌ۬ وَٲحِدٌ۬ۚ وَإِن لَّمۡ يَنتَهُواْ عَمَّا يَقُولُونَ لَيَمَسَّنَّ ٱلَّذِينَ كَفَرُواْ مِنۡهُمۡ عَذَابٌ أَلِيمٌ أَفَلَا يَتُوبُونَ إِلَى ٱللَّهِ وَيَسۡتَغۡفِرُونَهُ ۥۚ وَٱللَّهُ غَفُورٌ۬ رَّحِيمٌ۬ مَّا ٱلۡمَسِيحُ ٱبۡنُ مَرۡيَمَ إِلَّا رَسُولٌ۬ قَدۡ خَلَتۡ مِن قَبۡلِهِ ٱلرُّسُلُ وَأُمُّهُ ۥ صِدِّيقَةٌ۬ۖ ڪَانَا يَأۡڪُلَانِ ٱلطَّعَامَۗ ٱنظُرۡ ڪَيۡفَ نُبَيِّنُ لَهُمُ ٱلۡأَيَـٰتِ ثُمَّ ٱنظُرۡ أَنَّىٰ يُؤۡفَكُونَ قُلۡ أَتَعۡبُدُونَ مِن دُونِ ٱللَّهِ مَا لَا يَمۡلِكُ لَڪُمۡ ضَرًّ۬ا وَلَا نَفۡعً۬اۚ وَٱللَّهُ هُوَ ٱلسَّمِيعُ ٱلۡعَلِيمُ  قُلۡ يَـٰٓأَ أهۡلَ ٱلۡڪِتَـٰبِ لَا تَغۡلُواْ فِى دِينِڪُمۡ غَيۡرَ ٱلۡحَقِّ وَلَا تَتَّبِعُوٓاْ أَهۡوَآءَ قَوۡمٍ۬ قَدۡ ضَلُّواْ مِن قَبۡلُ وَأَضَلُّواْ ڪَثِيرً۬ا وَضَلُّواْ عَن سَوَآءِ ٱلسَّبِيلِ

“Those who say, ‘Allah is the Messiah, son of Maryam,’ have disbelieved in Allah. The Messiah himself said, ‘Children of Israel, worship Allah alone, my Lord and your Lord.’ If anyone associates others with Allah, Allah will forbid him from Paradise, and Hell will be his home. And no one will help such evildoers. Those people who say that Allah is the third of a trinity have disbelieved. There is only One God. If they persist in what they are saying, a painful punishment will afflict those of them who persist. Why do they not turn to Allah and ask His forgiveness, when Allah is most forgiving, most merciful? The Messiah, son of Maryam, was only a messenger; other messengers had come and gone before him; his mother was a virtuous woman; both ate food [like other mortals]. See how clear We make these signs for them; see how deluded they are. Say, ‘How can you worship something other than Allah, that which has no power to do you harm or good? Allah alone is the All Hearing and All Knowing.’ Say, ‘People of the Book, do not go to extremes in your religion other than the truth and do not follow the whims of those who went astray before you– they led many others astray and themselves continue to stray from the even path.’”

[Surah al-Māidah 5:72-77:]

Allah the most high says:

يَـٰٓأَهۡلَ ٱلۡڪِتَـٰبِ لَا تَغۡلُواْ فِى دِينِڪُمۡ وَلَا تَقُولُواْ عَلَى ٱللَّهِ إِلَّا ٱلۡحَقَّۚ إِنَّمَا ٱلۡمَسِيحُ عِيسَى ٱبۡنُ مَرۡيَمَ رَسُولُ ٱللَّهِ وَڪَلِمَتُهُ ۥۤ أَلۡقَٮٰهَآ إِلَىٰ مَرۡيَمَ وَرُوحٌ۬ مِّنۡهُۖ فَـَٔامِنُواْ بِٱللَّهِ وَرُسُلِهِۦۖ وَلَا تَقُولُواْ ثَلَـٰثَةٌۚ ٱنتَهُواْ خَيۡرً۬ا لَّڪُمۡۚ إِنَّمَا ٱللَّهُ إِلَـٰهٌ۬ وَٲحِدٌ۬ۖ سُبۡحَـٰنَهُ ۥۤ أَن يَكُونَ لَهُ ۥ وَلَدٌ۬ۘ لَّهُ ۥ مَا فِى ٱلسَّمَـٰوَٲتِ وَمَا فِى ٱلۡأَرۡضِۗ وَكَفَىٰ بِٱللَّهِ وَڪِيلاً۬

O People of the Book, do not go to extremes in your religion, and do not say anything about Allah except the truth: the Messiah, Jesus, son of Maryam, was nothing more than a messenger of Allah, His word, directed to Maryam, a spirit from Him. So believe in Allah and His messengers and do not speak of a ‘Trinity’– stop [this], that is better for you– Allah is the only one God, He is far above having a son, everything in the heavens and earth belongs to Him and sufficient is he for trust.

[Surah al-Nisā 4:171]

Allah the most high says:

وَقَالَتِ ٱلۡيَهُودُ عُزَيۡرٌ ٱبۡنُ ٱللَّهِ وَقَالَتِ ٱلنَّصَـٰرَى ٱلۡمَسِيحُ ٱبۡنُ ٱللَّهِۖ ذَٲلِكَ قَوۡلُهُم بِأَفۡوَٲهِهِمۡۖ يُضَـٰهِـُٔونَ قَوۡلَ ٱلَّذِينَ ڪَفَرُواْ مِن قَبۡلُۚ قَـٰتَلَهُمُ ٱللَّهُۚ أَنَّىٰ يُؤۡفَڪُون ٱتَّخَذُوٓاْ أَحۡبَارَهُمۡ وَرُهۡبَـٰنَهُمۡ أَرۡبَابً۬ا مِّن دُونِ ٱللَّهِ وَٱلۡمَسِيحَ ٱبۡنَ مَرۡيَمَ وَمَآ أُمِرُوٓاْ إِلَّا لِيَعۡبُدُوٓاْ إِلَـٰهً۬ا وَٲحِدً۬اۖ لَّآ إِلَـٰهَ إِلَّا هُوَۚ سُبۡحَـٰنَهُ ۥ عَمَّا يُشۡرِڪُو

The Jews said, ‘Uzayr is the son of God,’ and the Christians said, ‘The Messiah is the son of God’: they said this with their own mouths, repeating what earlier disbelievers had said. May God confound them! How far astray they have been led! They take their rabbis and their monks as lords, as well as Christ, the son of Maryam. But they were commanded to serve the one God alone: there is no god but Him; He is far above whatever they set up as His partners!

[Surah al-Tawbah 9:30-31]

Allah says:

مَا كَانَ لِبَشَرٍ أَن يُؤۡتِيَهُ ٱللَّهُ ٱلۡكِتَـٰبَ وَٱلۡحُكۡمَ وَٱلنُّبُوَّةَ ثُمَّ يَقُولَ لِلنَّاسِ كُونُواْ عِبَادً۬ا لِّى مِن دُونِ ٱللَّهِ وَلَـٰكِن كُونُواْ رَبَّـٰنِيِّـۧنَ بِمَا كُنتُمۡ تُعَلِّمُونَ ٱلۡكِتَـٰبَ وَبِمَا كُنتُمۡ تَدۡرُسُون وَلَا يَأۡمُرَكُمۡ أَن تَتَّخِذُواْ ٱلۡمَلَـٰٓٮِٕكَةَ وَٱلنَّبِيِّـۧنَ أَرۡبَابًاۗ أَيَأۡمُرُكُم بِٱلۡكُفۡرِ بَعۡدَ إِذۡ أَنتُم مُّسۡلِمُونَ

No person to whom Allah had given the Scripture, wisdom, and prophethood would ever say to people, ‘Be my servants, not Allah’s.’ [He would say], ‘You should be devoted to Allah because you have taught the Scripture and studied it closely.’ He would never command you to take angels and prophets as lords. How could he command you to be disbelievers after you had devoted yourselves to Allah?

[Surah aal-e-‘Imrān 3:79-:80]

Allah disproved the Quraysh by saying:

وَيَعۡبُدُونَ مِن دُونِ ٱللَّهِ مَا لَا يَضُرُّهُمۡ وَلَا يَنفَعُهُمۡ وَيَقُولُونَ هَـٰٓؤُلَآءِ شُفَعَـٰٓؤُنَا عِندَ ٱللَّهِۚ قُلۡ أَتُنَبِّـُٔونَ ٱللَّهَ بِمَا لَا يَعۡلَمُ فِى ٱلسَّمَـٰوَٲتِ وَلَا فِى ٱلۡأَرۡضِۚ سُبۡحَـٰنَهُ ۥ وَتَعَـٰلَىٰ عَمَّا يُشۡرِكُونَ

“They worship alongside Allah things that can neither harm nor benefit them, and say, ‘These are our intercessors with Allah.’ Say, ‘Do you think you can tell Allah about something He knows not to exist in the heavens or earth? Glory be to Him! He is far above the partner-gods they associate with Him!’

[Surah Yunus 10:18]

And Allah says:

وَقَالُواْ ٱتَّخَذَ ٱلرَّحۡمَـٰنُ وَلَدً۬ لَّقَدۡ جِئۡتُمۡ شَيۡـًٔا إِدًّ۬ تَڪَادُ ٱلسَّمَـٰوَٲتُ يَتَفَطَّرۡنَ مِنۡهُ وَتَنشَقُّ ٱلۡأَرۡضُ وَتَخِرُّ ٱلۡجِبَالُ هَدًّ أَن دَعَوۡاْ لِلرَّحۡمَـٰنِ وَلَدً۬ا وَمَا يَنۢبَغِى لِلرَّحۡمَـٰنِ أَن يَتَّخِذَ وَلَدً إِن ڪُلُّ مَن فِى ٱلسَّمَـٰوَٲتِ وَٱلۡأَرۡضِ إِلَّآ ءَاتِى ٱلرَّحۡمَـٰنِ عَبۡدً۬ا

The disbelievers say, ‘Al-Rahman has offspring.’ How terrible is this thing you assert: it almost causes the heavens to be torn apart, the earth to split asunder, the mountains to crumble to pieces, that they attribute offspring to Al-Rahman. It does not befit the Al-Rahman [to have offspring]: there is no one in the heavens or earth who will not come to Al-Rahman except as a servant.

[Surah Maryam 19:88-93]

The Quranic Ayat which prohibit extremism and criticise extremists are very many. As for the hadith, then we will see as follows:

حَدَّثَنَا الْحُمَيْدِيُّ، حَدَّثَنَا سُفْيَانُ، قَالَ سَمِعْتُ الزُّهْرِيَّ، يَقُولُ أَخْبَرَنِي عُبَيْدُ اللَّهِ بْنُ عَبْدِ اللَّهِ، عَنِ ابْنِ عَبَّاسٍ، سَمِعَ عُمَرَ ـ رضى الله عنه ـ يَقُولُ عَلَى الْمِنْبَرِ سَمِعْتُ النَّبِيَّ صلى الله عليه وسلم يَقُولُ ‏ “‏ لاَ تُطْرُونِي كَمَا أَطْرَتِ النَّصَارَى ابْنَ مَرْيَمَ، فَإِنَّمَا أَنَا عَبْدُهُ، فَقُولُوا عَبْدُ اللَّهِ وَرَسُولُهُ ‏”

Narrated by ‘Umar that the Prophet said, “Do not go to extremes with me like the Christians go to extremes with the son of Maryam, rather I am just a slave so say, ‘the slave of Allah and his messenger.’” [Bukhari vol. 6, p. 478, #3445]

حَدَّثَنَا مُسَدَّدٌ، حَدَّثَنَا بِشْرٌ،يَعْنِي ابْنَ الْمُفَضَّلِحَدَّثَنَا أَبُو مَسْلَمَةَ، سَعِيدُ بْنُ يَزِيدَ عَنْ أَبِي نَضْرَةَ، عَنْ مُطَرِّفٍ، قَالَ قَالَ أَبِي انْطَلَقْتُ فِي وَفْدِ بَنِي عَامِرٍ إِلَى رَسُولِ اللَّهِ صلى الله عليه وسلم فَقُلْنَا أَنْتَ سَيِّدُنَا ‏.‏ فَقَالَ ‏”‏ السَّيِّدُ اللَّهُ تَبَارَكَ وَتَعَالَى ‏”‏ ‏.‏ قُلْنَا وَأَفْضَلُنَا فَضْلاً وَأَعْظَمُنَا طَوْلاً ‏.‏ فَقَالَ ‏”‏ قُولُوا بِقَوْلِكُمْ أَوْ بَعْضِ قَوْلِكُمْ وَلاَ يَسْتَجْرِيَنَّكُمُ الشَّيْطَانُ ‏”‏

Narrated by the father of Muttaraf who said, “I went with the delegation of Banu ‘Āmir to the messenger of Allah and we said to him, ‘you are our master (sayyid)’ so the messenger said, ‘the master is Allah’ so we said ‘you are the most bountiful amongst us and the greatest in strength amongst us’ so the messenger said ‘you can say this saying or part of this saying but do not let Shaytan overwhelm you.’” [Abu Dāwūd, (‘Awn al-ma’būd), vol. 13, p. 161, #4806]

And this hadith is authentic upon the conditions of Muslim

أخبرنا أبو بكر بن نافع قال حدثنا بهز قال حدثنا ثنا حَمَّادُ بْنُ سَلَمَةَ ، أنبا ثَابِتٌ ، عَنْ أَنَسٍ ، أَنَّ رَجُلًا قَالَ : يَا مُحَمَّدُ يَا خَيْرَنَا وَابْنَ خَيْرِنَا وَسَيِّدَنَا وَابْنَ سَيِّدِنَا ، فَقَالَ : ” يَا أَيُّهَا النَّاسُ قُولُوا بِقَوْلِكُمْ وَلا يَسْتَهْوِكُمُ الشَّيْطَانُ ؛ أَنَا مُحَمَّدٌ عَبْدُ اللَّهِ وَرَسُولُهُ مَا أَحَبُّ أَنْ تَرْفَعُونِي فَوْقَ مَنْزِلَتِي الَّتِي أَنْزَلَنِي اللَّهُ ” .

Narrated by Anas that the people said to the Messenger, “O best of us, the son of the best of us, o master and the son of our master.” So the Messenger said, “O people, be cautious of your words. And do not let Shaytan charm you. Verily I do not want you to raise me above the rank which Allah placed as my rank. I am Muhammad, the son of Abdullah, the servant of Allah and his Messenger.” [‘Amal al-yawm wa’l layla p. 250]

This hadith is authentic upon the conditions of Muslim. And it was narrated also by Ahmad in his Musnad, vol. 3, p. 249.

As for the followers of Abu Hanifa, then they have gone to extremes regarding him, nicknaming him, ‘Imām al-‘Azam’, the greatest Imam. In fact more severe than this, one of his followers would say:

“May an infinite curse, (lit. like the number of sand-grains) from our Lord be upon the one who rejects the view of Abu Hanifa!”

Al-Wādi’ī, Muqbil bin Hādī., نشر الصحيفة في ذكر الصحيح من أقوال أئمة الجرح والتعديل في أبي حنيفة, Cairo, Arab Republic of Egypt, Dār al-Haramayn, pp. 7-9.

To Read the Introduction of: A Critical Study of Abu Hanifah in the Footsteps of the Scholars: Please Click Here